Additional Resources

The toolkit has drawn on many different resources. This is a list of additional resources that provide background and further details.

  1. Resources for Positive Youth Development Frameworks
  2. Resources for PYD Constructs and Illustrative Indicators
  3. Resources for Adapting PYD Measurement to Different Contexts

Additional Resources for Positive Youth Development Frameworks

1. National Academy of Sciences (2004). Community Programs to Promote Youth Development
2. National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth for the Family and Youth Services Bureau (2007). Putting Positive Youth Development into Practice: A Resource Guide.
3. Guerra, N. G., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2008). “Linking the prevention of problem behaviors and positive youth development: Core competencies for positive youth development and risk prevention.” In N. G. Guerra & C. P. Bradshaw (Eds.), Core competencies to prevent problem behaviors and promote positive youth development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 122, 1–17.

Additional Resources for PYD Constructs and Illustrative Indicators

PYD project example

1. IREX (2011). Youth Theater for Peace Program Evaluation.

PYD measurement

2. USAID (2013). Scan and Review of Youth Development Measurement Tools.
3. CDC (2005). Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Influences Among Youth: A Compendium of Assessment Tools.
4. YouthPower Action. (2016). Measuring Soft Skills in International Youth Development Programs: A Review and Inventory of Tools.

Cross-sectoral youth development

5. USAID (2013). State of the Filed Report: Holistic, Cross-Sectoral Youth Development.
6. USAID (2014). Youth in Development: Effective approaches and action-oriented recommendations for the field.
7. Youth Investors Funders Group (2015). Investing to Improve the Well-Being of Vulnerable Youth and Young Adults Recommendations for Policy and Practice.

Life Skills/Soft Skills

8. Forum for Youth Investment (2016). Preparing Youth to Thrive: Promising Practices for Social and Emotional Learning, Forum for Youth Investment.
9. USAID Workforce Connections (2015). Key “Soft Skills” that Foster Youth Workforce Success: Toward a Consensus across Fields.
10. Kautz,T., et al. (2014), Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success
11. IREX (2012). 21st Century Youth Competencies Assessment.

Monitoring and Evaluation

12. MEASURE Evaluation. (2007, revised 2016) M&E Fundamentals: A Self-Guided Mini-course.
13. World Bank. (2007) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E): Some Tools, Methods and Approaches
14. W.K. Kellogg Foundation (2004) Logic Model Development Guide.
15. InterAction. (2012) Impact Evaluation Guidance Note And Webinar Series
16. USAID (2010). TIPS on Selecting Performance Indicators
17. Better Evaluation (2011). Equal Access Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit.

Dissemination and adaptation

18. USAID Program Cycle
       a. USAID Learning Lab
       b. Collaboration, Learning and Adapting: Framework and Key Concepts
       c. USAID (2016) ADS Chapter 201: Program Cycle Operational Policy
19. UNICEF (2004). Bridging the gap: The role of monitoring and evaluation in Evidence-based policy making.

Additional Resources for Adapting PYD Measurement to Different Contexts

Validation and Reliability of Scales
1. DeVellis, R.F (2016). Scale Development: Theory and Applications (Applied Social Research Methods), 4th Edition.
2. Save the Children (forthcoming). The Children Reliability Protocol.

Age, Developmental Stage, and Life Stage
3. NIH (2011). The Teen Brain: Still under Construction.
4. Child Trends (2015). The Developing Brain: Implications for Youth Programs.
5. FHI 360 (2016). Looking through the Lens of Adolescent Development to Strengthen Secondary Education.

Gender, Culture, Language and Literacy
6. YouthPower Learning (2016). Does Your Program Reflect Gender Transformative or Positive Youth Development Practices? A Checklist.
7. Measure Evaluation (2016). Guidelines for Integrating Gender into an M&E Framework and System Assessment.
8. Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (2014). Gender Transformative Approaches, An HC3 Primer.
9. Institute for Reproductive Health (2014). Developmental Assets and Sexual and Reproductive Health among 10 to14 Year Olds in Uganda.
10. Search Institute, (n.d) Developmental Assets Profile

Ethical and other key considerations
11. BRYCS (2009). Growing Up in a New Country: A Positive Youth Development Toolkit for Working with Refugees and Immigrants.
12. (n.d.). LGBT Youth - A resource repository on
13. USAID (n.d.). LGBT Vision for Action: Promoting and Supporting Inclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Individuals (Chapters 4 and 6)
14. USAID (n.d.). Advancing disability inclusive development?
15. EQUIP1 (2011). Access to Quality Education for Children and Youth With Disabilities in Conflict, Crisis and Stable Countries
16. Search Institute (2010). Strong Staff, Strong Students: Professional Development in Schools and Youth Programs.
17. Schenk, K. and Williamson J. (2005). Ethical Approaches to Gathering Information from Children and Adolescents in International Settings: Guidelines and Resources.
18. UNICEF (2016). What we know about ethical research involving children in humanitarian settings: An overview of the principles, the literature and case studies

Youth Engagement
19. YouthPower Learning (2016). Youth Engagement Community of Practice. Join the CoP at
20. USAID (2014). Youth Engagement in Development: Effective Approaches and Action- Oriented Recommendations for the Field.
21. Restless Development (2012). Literature Review: What evidence is there to suggest that engaging young people in development enhances or limits development outcomes across different contexts and in different geographical locations?
22. Dolan, P., et al. (2015). Youth as Researcher Training Manual. UNESCO, Child and Family Research Centre.
23. Powers, J. and Tiffany, J.S. (2006). Engaging Youth in Participatory Research and Evaluation. J Public Health Management Practice, 2006, November (Suppl), S79–S87
24. DFID (2010). Youth Participation in Development Guide
25. YouthPolicy (2010). Youth Participation in Development – A Guide for Development Agencies.
26. DFID (2016). Putting young people at the heart of development: The Department for International Development’s Youth Agenda.

Go to:

• Home: PYD toolkit
• A framework for measuring PYD
• A set of illustrative PYD indicators
• Application of PYD framework and indicators at each phase of a program design and evaluation:
                Phase 1. Define (or refine) key desired outcomes or research questions
                Phase 2. Determine PYD features and beneficiaries of the program
                Phase 3. Finalize the logic model
                Phase 4. Decide what to measure, and how (study design and indicators)
                Phase 5. Analyze the data, disseminate the findings and adapt your program
• Considerations for adapting measures cross-culturally
• Additional resources and references 
• FAQs
• PYD Glossary