Preventing Gendered Violence

Youth in conflict contexts are particularly vulnerable to gendered violence.  This includes sexual violence and coercion, as well as gendered norms surrounding participation in violence.  This set of resources examines varied cultural norms around masculinity and violence for young males, as well as programs to reduce forms of sexual violence especially in conflict areas.

Masculinities, Conflict, and Peacebuilding

Research tells us that socially constructed gender norms which associate masculinity with power, violence and control can play a role in driving conflict and insecurity.  Examining the reasons behind this, ‘Masculinities, conflict and peacebuilding’ aims to advance discussions about integrating a masculinities perspective into peacebuilding policy and practice. It examines existing INGO programmes that promote non-violent and gender equitable masculinities and poses key questions about how these can be further developed to challenge the gender norms which drive conflict and insecurity. Masculinities, conflict and peacebuilding makes recommendations to key actors, including: - examine gender perspectives during conflict analysis, looking at men and boys from a gender viewpoint; - develop theories of change and pilot programming approaches that begin challenging masculine gender norms; - mainstream a masculinities perspective in international security and development interventions, examining how activities are influencing masculinities; - advance the women, peace and security agenda, as efforts to promote and realise women’s rights and efforts to break the links between gender norms and violence should be mutually reinforcing.

Adolescent Girls in Disaster & Conflict

Millions of adolescent girls are in need of humanitarian assistance. A crisis heightens their vulnerability to gender-based violence, unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, maternal death and disability, early and forced marriage, rape, trafficking, and sexual exploitation and abuse. In emergencies, adolescent girls need tailored programming to increase their access to sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, and to protect them from gender-based violence.

From safe spaces to mobile clinics to youth participation, UNFPA uses different approaches to reach displaced, uprooted and crisis-affected adolescent girls at a critical time in their young lives. This publication features new case studies on reaching adolescent girls in humanitarian situations from programmes in Malawi, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Somalia. 

PYD Approaches to Mitigate Sexual Violence and Coercion Among Adolescents

This technical brief aims to inform researchers and program implementers working with youth in developing countries, who likely interact with youth who have experienced sexual coercion. The brief highlights examples of successful programs for reducing the occurrence of sexual coercion and force and describes strategies for responding to them. It also discusses how the frequency and negative effects of sexual coercion experienced by boys and girls could be reduced by building assets, especially social skills, agency, and youth empowerment, as a part of positive youth development (PYD) programs.

Briefing Paper Addressing School-Related Gender-Based Violence is Critical for Safe Learning Environments in Refugee Contexts

Adolescent girls are 2.5 times more likely to be out of school in conflict and crises contexts compared to their male peers in similar contexts . Refugee children and adolescents, girls in particular, are vulnerable to gender-based sexual violence.  Boys are also bullied and are victimized when perceived to not conform to prevailing norms of acceptable male behavior or appearance and may face harsher corporal punishment than girls. Safe learning spaces can reinforce principles of gender equality and promote positive gender and social norms that teach girls and boys to develop and practice non-violent coping mechanisms. However, safety within learning spaces cannot be taken for granted in stressed and crisis affected contexts. Careful attention needs to be placed on preventing gender-based violence when designing learning environments for refugee children and adolescents.